Following the North-West Rebellion  (1882-1935) , areas in western Canada started implementing a pass system aimed at racially discriminating and segregating First Nation's mobility, although never instated legally. The pass system required any First Nation person to obtain a pass signed by the Indian agent that outlined the duration and purpose of that person wanting to leave the reservation in which they lived. Any First Nation person found without a pass outside their reservation were taken into custody by police and returned to their reserve. In some locations the passes continued being used into the twentieth century although the passes were never federally instated. It is clear by Hayter Reed’s (1st council of the Northwest Territories) statement to the Indian commissioner that he had already implemented the system before Macdonald endorsed the project: “I am adopting the system of keeping Indians on their respective Reserves and not allowing any [to] leave them without passes – I know this is hardly supportable by any legal enactment but we must do many things which can only be supported by common sense and by what may be for the general good.”   Read more about the pass system

Following the North-West Rebellion (1882-1935), areas in western Canada started implementing a pass system aimed at racially discriminating and segregating First Nation's mobility, although never instated legally. The pass system required any First Nation person to obtain a pass signed by the Indian agent that outlined the duration and purpose of that person wanting to leave the reservation in which they lived. Any First Nation person found without a pass outside their reservation were taken into custody by police and returned to their reserve. In some locations the passes continued being used into the twentieth century although the passes were never federally instated. It is clear by Hayter Reed’s (1st council of the Northwest Territories) statement to the Indian commissioner that he had already implemented the system before Macdonald endorsed the project: “I am adopting the system of keeping Indians on their respective Reserves and not allowing any [to] leave them without passes – I know this is hardly supportable by any legal enactment but we must do many things which can only be supported by common sense and by what may be for the general good.”

Read more about the pass system

 Canadian state funded residential schools first started opening their doors in the early  1870 s. Although residential schools were not a new system or structure in the territory we now call Canada; residential schools appeared as early as 1830s in eastern Canada these institutions were run by local churches (Anglican, Methodist, and Roman Catholic).   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report    Brief introduction to residential schools in Canada

Canadian state funded residential schools first started opening their doors in the early 1870s. Although residential schools were not a new system or structure in the territory we now call Canada; residential schools appeared as early as 1830s in eastern Canada these institutions were run by local churches (Anglican, Methodist, and Roman Catholic).

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

Brief introduction to residential schools in Canada

 Gordon Residential School in Punnichy, Saskatchewan, closed its doors in  1996 , it was the last federally funded residential school.    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report    Brief summary on residential schools

Gordon Residential School in Punnichy, Saskatchewan, closed its doors in 1996, it was the last federally funded residential school. 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

Brief summary on residential schools

 In  1902  a commissioner from South Africa visited western Canada to study the pass system as a method of social control. The segregate system of Apartheid was implemented in 1948. Author Daniel Paul states South Africa's "apartheid was invented to separate the races; Canada’s assimilation policies were implemented to exterminate."     Read more about the pass system in Canada

In 1902 a commissioner from South Africa visited western Canada to study the pass system as a method of social control. The segregate system of Apartheid was implemented in 1948. Author Daniel Paul states South Africa's "apartheid was invented to separate the races; Canada’s assimilation policies were implemented to exterminate."  

Read more about the pass system in Canada

 In  1987  Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, during his visit to the Vatican, was met with a hostile question in response to his speaking out against apartheid in South Africa. Mulroney quickly denied that black and coloured peoples under apartheid compared to First Nations in Canada. Yet it is known that the apartheid system was modelled after Canada's segregation structure.   Read more about the pass system

In 1987 Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, during his visit to the Vatican, was met with a hostile question in response to his speaking out against apartheid in South Africa. Mulroney quickly denied that black and coloured peoples under apartheid compared to First Nations in Canada. Yet it is known that the apartheid system was modelled after Canada's segregation structure.

Read more about the pass system

 "When the school is on the reserve the child lives with its parents, who are savages; he is surrounded by savages, and though he may learn to read and write his habits, and training and mode of thought are Indian. He is simply a savage who can read and write. It has been strongly pressed on myself, as the head of the Department, that Indian children should be withdrawn as much as possible from the parental influence, and the only way to do that would be to put them in central training industrial schools where they will acquire the habits and modes of thought of white men.” - Sir John A. Macdonald,  1883    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

"When the school is on the reserve the child lives with its parents, who are savages; he is surrounded by savages, and though he may learn to read and write his habits, and training and mode of thought are Indian. He is simply a savage who can read and write. It has been strongly pressed on myself, as the head of the Department, that Indian children should be withdrawn as much as possible from the parental influence, and the only way to do that would be to put them in central training industrial schools where they will acquire the habits and modes of thought of white men.” - Sir John A. Macdonald, 1883

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy (The White Paper)  1969:  this government policy attempted to abolish previous legal agreements, such as the Indian Act and treaties, and assimilate all Indian peoples under the Canadian state. The reaction from the Aboriginal community was national, it provoked and influenced court decisions and discussions, which, in retrospect, seems to have marked the beginning of negotiations and renewal phase in Nation-to-Nation discussions.   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy (The White Paper) 1969: this government policy attempted to abolish previous legal agreements, such as the Indian Act and treaties, and assimilate all Indian peoples under the Canadian state. The reaction from the Aboriginal community was national, it provoked and influenced court decisions and discussions, which, in retrospect, seems to have marked the beginning of negotiations and renewal phase in Nation-to-Nation discussions.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 The federal government of Canada estimates that  150,000  First Nations, Metis and Inuit students passed through the residential school system, survivors, their children and grand-children are still dealing with the outcomes of the system.    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

The federal government of Canada estimates that 150,000 First Nations, Metis and Inuit students passed through the residential school system, survivors, their children and grand-children are still dealing with the outcomes of the system. 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 On  June 1, 2008  the Indian Residential School Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established, the mandate of this commission is to inform all Canadians about what happened in Indian Residential Schools. This commission follows the lineage of commissions by the same name in Chile in 1990 and South Africa in 2001.  Ray, Arthur J.  An Illustrated History of Canada's Native People: I Have Lived Here since the World Began . McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.

On June 1, 2008 the Indian Residential School Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established, the mandate of this commission is to inform all Canadians about what happened in Indian Residential Schools. This commission follows the lineage of commissions by the same name in Chile in 1990 and South Africa in 2001.

Ray, Arthur J. An Illustrated History of Canada's Native People: I Have Lived Here since the World Began. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.

 Oka Resistance began July 11, 1990. This dispute was between Mohawk First Nation, the Quebec police and the Canadian government over a court decision to have a golf course constructed on traditional Mohawk land.  Ray, Arthur J.  An Illustrated History of Canada's Native People: I Have Lived Here since the World Began . McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.

Oka Resistance began July 11, 1990. This dispute was between Mohawk First Nation, the Quebec police and the Canadian government over a court decision to have a golf course constructed on traditional Mohawk land.

Ray, Arthur J. An Illustrated History of Canada's Native People: I Have Lived Here since the World Began. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.

 In  1876 , the Indian Act passed, making all First Nations wards of the federal government and taking away the rights of self-government for native nations. The act and the Canadian government defined what an "Indian" was - this definition was not corroborated by the First Nations themselves. This act is a legislative policy that was a blueprint for controlling, administering and assimilating Canada's indigenous peoples. This legislation only recognized Indianness to those already residing on recognized reserves or belonging to recognized Indian bands- the rest were nonexistent and therefore did not fall under the category of Indian. 

In 1876, the Indian Act passed, making all First Nations wards of the federal government and taking away the rights of self-government for native nations. The act and the Canadian government defined what an "Indian" was - this definition was not corroborated by the First Nations themselves. This act is a legislative policy that was a blueprint for controlling, administering and assimilating Canada's indigenous peoples. This legislation only recognized Indianness to those already residing on recognized reserves or belonging to recognized Indian bands- the rest were nonexistent and therefore did not fall under the category of Indian. 

 In  1885  the Northwest Rebellion/Resistance fought by Metis militants and their Aboriginal allies against the federal Canadian government lasted five months. It was caused by rising fears and insecurities among the Metis and Aboriginal peoples of the plains. With the disappearance of the great bison herds, lack of government support for food, which led to mass starvation, and displacement, the First Nations people of the plains rose up against the Canadian state government. This led to permanent enforcement of Canadian law in the West, the subjugation of the Metis and the plains tribes, and the conviction and hanging of rebel leader Louis Riel. 

In 1885 the Northwest Rebellion/Resistance fought by Metis militants and their Aboriginal allies against the federal Canadian government lasted five months. It was caused by rising fears and insecurities among the Metis and Aboriginal peoples of the plains. With the disappearance of the great bison herds, lack of government support for food, which led to mass starvation, and displacement, the First Nations people of the plains rose up against the Canadian state government. This led to permanent enforcement of Canadian law in the West, the subjugation of the Metis and the plains tribes, and the conviction and hanging of rebel leader Louis Riel. 

 Shanawdithit was the last known living member of the Beothuk people of Newfoundland. She died of tuberculosis (TB) in St.John's in  1829 . TB was the leading cause of death when Canada became a country in 1867. Over crowded residential schools made TB a common disease.   

Shanawdithit was the last known living member of the Beothuk people of Newfoundland. She died of tuberculosis (TB) in St.John's in 1829. TB was the leading cause of death when Canada became a country in 1867. Over crowded residential schools made TB a common disease.

 

 Idle No More, a grassroots movement consisting of First Nations and their allies that started to protest the omnibus Bill C-45 in  December 2012 . The movement continues as an ongoing resistance against the neo-colonialism. “Idle No More” seeks to assert Indigenous inherent rights to sovereignty and reinstitute traditional laws and Nation to Nation Treaties by protecting the lands and waters from corporate destruction. Each day that Indigenous rights are not honored or fulfilled, inequality between Indigenous peoples and the settler society grows.”    Read more about Idle No More

Idle No More, a grassroots movement consisting of First Nations and their allies that started to protest the omnibus Bill C-45 in December 2012. The movement continues as an ongoing resistance against the neo-colonialism. “Idle No More” seeks to assert Indigenous inherent rights to sovereignty and reinstitute traditional laws and Nation to Nation Treaties by protecting the lands and waters from corporate destruction. Each day that Indigenous rights are not honored or fulfilled, inequality between Indigenous peoples and the settler society grows.” 

Read more about Idle No More

 2009 Canadian General Survey on Victimization reported nearly  67,000  Aboriginal women aged 15 or older said they were victims of one or more violent crimes. 63% of those surveyed were aged 15 - 34 showing the rise in violence towards young women and children.    Walk4Justice

2009 Canadian General Survey on Victimization reported nearly 67,000 Aboriginal women aged 15 or older said they were victims of one or more violent crimes. 63% of those surveyed were aged 15 - 34 showing the rise in violence towards young women and children. 

Walk4Justice

 2009 Canadian General Survey on Victimization reported nearly 67,000 Aboriginal women aged 15 or older said they were victims of one or more violent crimes.  63%  of those surveyed were aged 15 - 34 showing the rise in violence towards young women and children.    Walk4Justice

2009 Canadian General Survey on Victimization reported nearly 67,000 Aboriginal women aged 15 or older said they were victims of one or more violent crimes. 63% of those surveyed were aged 15 - 34 showing the rise in violence towards young women and children. 

Walk4Justice

 In August 1871  Treaty 1  was negotiated and entered into by Queen Victoria and current day southeastern Manitoba First Nations. Treaty 1 and 2 were amended in 1875 to add provisions, which were originally discussed and promised verbally by the government. 

In August 1871 Treaty 1 was negotiated and entered into by Queen Victoria and current day southeastern Manitoba First Nations. Treaty 1 and 2 were amended in 1875 to add provisions, which were originally discussed and promised verbally by the government. 

 In August 1871  Treaty 2  was negotiated and entered into by Queen Victoria and First Nations bands in current day southwestern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan. Treaty 1 and 2 were amended in 1875 to add provisions, which were originally discussed and promised verbally by the government.

In August 1871 Treaty 2 was negotiated and entered into by Queen Victoria and First Nations bands in current day southwestern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan. Treaty 1 and 2 were amended in 1875 to add provisions, which were originally discussed and promised verbally by the government.

 In October 1873 Queen Victoria and the First Nations of current day northwestern Ontario and eastern Manitoba entered into the  Treaty 3  agreement. Treaty 3 was historically significant in that it serves as the model for the following treaties.

In October 1873 Queen Victoria and the First Nations of current day northwestern Ontario and eastern Manitoba entered into the Treaty 3 agreement. Treaty 3 was historically significant in that it serves as the model for the following treaties.

 In September 1874  Treaty 4  was established between Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day southern Saskatchewan and small portions of Manitoba and Alberta.

In September 1874 Treaty 4 was established between Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day southern Saskatchewan and small portions of Manitoba and Alberta.

 In September 1875  Treaty 5  was established between Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day central and northern Manitoba, as well as small portions of Saskatchewan and Ontario. 

In September 1875 Treaty 5 was established between Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day central and northern Manitoba, as well as small portions of Saskatchewan and Ontario. 

 Between 1876 and 1898  Treaty 6  was agreed upon by Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day central Saskatchewan and Alberta, as well as one Manitoba band. 

Between 1876 and 1898 Treaty 6 was agreed upon by Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day central Saskatchewan and Alberta, as well as one Manitoba band. 

 In September 1877  Treaty 7  was agreed upon by Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day southern Alberta. 

In September 1877 Treaty 7 was agreed upon by Queen Victoria and First Nations of current day southern Alberta. 

 In June 1899  Treaty 8  was agreed upon by Queen Victoria and First Nations of Lesser Slave Lake area of Alberta.    

In June 1899 Treaty 8 was agreed upon by Queen Victoria and First Nations of Lesser Slave Lake area of Alberta. 

 

 In July 1905  Treaty 9  was established between the government of Canada and First Nations of northern Ontario. 

In July 1905 Treaty 9 was established between the government of Canada and First Nations of northern Ontario. 

 In August 1906  Treaty 10  was established between King George V and First Nations of northern Saskatchewan and a small portion of eastern Alberta. 

In August 1906 Treaty 10 was established between King George V and First Nations of northern Saskatchewan and a small portion of eastern Alberta. 

 Between 1921 and 1922  Treaty 11  was agreed upon by King George V and First Nations of the Northwest Territories

Between 1921 and 1922 Treaty 11 was agreed upon by King George V and First Nations of the Northwest Territories

 In  1881  an amendment to the Indian Act prohibited the sale of agricultural produce by ‘legal’ Indians in the prairie provinces, to keep them from competing with White farmers.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 1881 an amendment to the Indian Act prohibited the sale of agricultural produce by ‘legal’ Indians in the prairie provinces, to keep them from competing with White farmers.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 In  1885  an amendment to the Indian Act prohibited religious ceremonies, dances and spiritual practices, such as the Sun Dance, the Potlatch and Powwows. Objects of spiritual value were confiscates, destroyed and stolen; many were put on display in museums adding to the ‘vanishing race’ fantasy.   King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

In 1885 an amendment to the Indian Act prohibited religious ceremonies, dances and spiritual practices, such as the Sun Dance, the Potlatch and Powwows. Objects of spiritual value were confiscates, destroyed and stolen; many were put on display in museums adding to the ‘vanishing race’ fantasy. 

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 In  1905  an amendment to the Indian Act allowed the removal of Aboriginal people from reserves that were too close to White towns of more than 8,000 residents.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 1905 an amendment to the Indian Act allowed the removal of Aboriginal people from reserves that were too close to White towns of more than 8,000 residents.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 In  1911  an amendment to the Indian Act allowed municipalities and companies to expropriate portions of reserves, without the permission of the band, for roads, railways and other public works.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 1911 an amendment to the Indian Act allowed municipalities and companies to expropriate portions of reserves, without the permission of the band, for roads, railways and other public works.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 The Metis of Ste. Madeleine in Manitoba were removed from their lands due to the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act of  1935 . This act allowed the government to turn farmland into pastureland in an attempt to control soil erosion in the prairies. When pastures were created and people displaced, the people were to be compensated and relocated to other lands. During this time the government deemed the people of Ste. Madeleine's squatters and burned their homes down with no monetary or land compensation.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

The Metis of Ste. Madeleine in Manitoba were removed from their lands due to the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act of 1935. This act allowed the government to turn farmland into pastureland in an attempt to control soil erosion in the prairies. When pastures were created and people displaced, the people were to be compensated and relocated to other lands. During this time the government deemed the people of Ste. Madeleine's squatters and burned their homes down with no monetary or land compensation.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 Up until  1968  ‘legal’ Indians, meaning Indians who signed treaty or reserve Indians under the umbrella of status, were enfranchised into the Canadian citizenship, this could be with or without consent. Being enfranchised as a Canadian citizenship meant they lost the recognition of being seen as a legal Indian and therefore the government didn’t recognize them as such.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Up until 1968 ‘legal’ Indians, meaning Indians who signed treaty or reserve Indians under the umbrella of status, were enfranchised into the Canadian citizenship, this could be with or without consent. Being enfranchised as a Canadian citizenship meant they lost the recognition of being seen as a legal Indian and therefore the government didn’t recognize them as such.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 In  1942  almost 2,000 Mi'kmaq living in Nova Scotia were relocated to one of two locations, Eskasoni or Shubenacadie. The government believed that centralizing the Mi'kmaq would cut costs. Six years after the relocation of these people the government admitted that the centralization of Mi'kmaq wasn’t successful and cut the program. Leaving the people who had pack up and relocated worse off than they had been before the program was mentioned.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 1942 almost 2,000 Mi'kmaq living in Nova Scotia were relocated to one of two locations, Eskasoni or Shubenacadie. The government believed that centralizing the Mi'kmaq would cut costs. Six years after the relocation of these people the government admitted that the centralization of Mi'kmaq wasn’t successful and cut the program. Leaving the people who had pack up and relocated worse off than they had been before the program was mentioned.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 Churchill Falls in Newfoundland was built in  1967 ; it destroyed over 1,900 square miles of traditional hunting and fishing lands due to flooding.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Churchill Falls in Newfoundland was built in 1967; it destroyed over 1,900 square miles of traditional hunting and fishing lands due to flooding.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 In  1971  James Bay hydroelectric power project on La Grande River in northwestern Quebec destroyed over 11,500 square kilometers of Aboriginal land by the state owned Hydro-Quebec. Construction of the project violated earlier treaties and led to conflict between the colonial state and Cree and Inuit of Northern Quebec over land rights, lifestyle and environmental issues. In 1975, ruling against the Quebec government, a settlement in the form of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement was reached. This was the first major agreement between the crown and Aboriginal peoples since the signing of the earlier treaties.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 1971 James Bay hydroelectric power project on La Grande River in northwestern Quebec destroyed over 11,500 square kilometers of Aboriginal land by the state owned Hydro-Quebec. Construction of the project violated earlier treaties and led to conflict between the colonial state and Cree and Inuit of Northern Quebec over land rights, lifestyle and environmental issues. In 1975, ruling against the Quebec government, a settlement in the form of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement was reached. This was the first major agreement between the crown and Aboriginal peoples since the signing of the earlier treaties.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 About  50%  of Aboriginal children that attended residential school lost their lives to malnutrition, neglect, and abuse.   King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

About 50% of Aboriginal children that attended residential school lost their lives to malnutrition, neglect, and abuse. 

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 In  2009  Pope Benedict XVI expressed 'sorrow' to the Assembly of First Nations delegates for their 'deplorable' treatment of Aboriginal students at catholic-run residential schools; taking no responsibility for the actions of the church and making no attempt at an apology to the Aboriginal students that attended their institutions or the generations that are still feeling the impact of the residential school system.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 2009 Pope Benedict XVI expressed 'sorrow' to the Assembly of First Nations delegates for their 'deplorable' treatment of Aboriginal students at catholic-run residential schools; taking no responsibility for the actions of the church and making no attempt at an apology to the Aboriginal students that attended their institutions or the generations that are still feeling the impact of the residential school system.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 On  September 25, 2009 , in Pittsburg, USA, Prime Minister Stephen Harper said in his speech at the G20 summit, "We also have no history of colonialism. So we have all of the things that many people admire about the great powers but none of the things that threaten or bother them." This was about three months after Harper publicly apologized for the violent assimilationist history of residential schools.   King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.   

On September 25, 2009, in Pittsburg, USA, Prime Minister Stephen Harper said in his speech at the G20 summit, "We also have no history of colonialism. So we have all of the things that many people admire about the great powers but none of the things that threaten or bother them." This was about three months after Harper publicly apologized for the violent assimilationist history of residential schools. 

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 

 The Burnt Church Crisis - a conflict between Mi'kmaq people of Burnt Church First Nation and non-Aboriginal fisheries in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between  1999 and 2002 . The Supreme Court of Canada ruling (R v. Marshall) acknowledged the Treaty of 1752 and Treaty of 1760-1761 held that a Mi'kmaq man, Marshall, had the right to fish eels out of season; this sparked the rightful assumption that this applied to all First Nations of the treaties. The Burnt Church First Nation interpretted the ruling as a right to fish out of season. After a few lobster traps were pulled up, local fisherman and fisheries grew angry and soon became violent. Thousands of Mi'kmaq traps were destroyed; both parties suffered injuries and damaged property once the crisis was underway.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

The Burnt Church Crisis - a conflict between Mi'kmaq people of Burnt Church First Nation and non-Aboriginal fisheries in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between 1999 and 2002. The Supreme Court of Canada ruling (R v. Marshall) acknowledged the Treaty of 1752 and Treaty of 1760-1761 held that a Mi'kmaq man, Marshall, had the right to fish eels out of season; this sparked the rightful assumption that this applied to all First Nations of the treaties. The Burnt Church First Nation interpretted the ruling as a right to fish out of season. After a few lobster traps were pulled up, local fisherman and fisheries grew angry and soon became violent. Thousands of Mi'kmaq traps were destroyed; both parties suffered injuries and damaged property once the crisis was underway.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 The Gustafsen Lake standoff was a confrontation between the RCMP and the Ts'peten Defenders in the interior of BC.  August 18, 1995  was the day it began and lasted a month.   King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

The Gustafsen Lake standoff was a confrontation between the RCMP and the Ts'peten Defenders in the interior of BC. August 18, 1995 was the day it began and lasted a month. 

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 In  November 1990 , Neil Stonechild was driven to the outskirts of Saskatoon and left at the side of the road. The next day he was found frozen to death. Stonechild was last seen getting into a police cruiser, leading concerned community members to question the authority of police in the area. The Stonechild case stayed closed until January 2000 when another Native man, Darrell Night, survived his police escort into the winter prairie fields outside of the city. Unfortunately Rodney Naistus and Lawrence Wagner were not as lucky, they were found not far from where Night had been dropped off. The term ‘Starlight Tours’ was coined for this type of treatment, typically aimed at Aboriginal men.   King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In November 1990, Neil Stonechild was driven to the outskirts of Saskatoon and left at the side of the road. The next day he was found frozen to death. Stonechild was last seen getting into a police cruiser, leading concerned community members to question the authority of police in the area. The Stonechild case stayed closed until January 2000 when another Native man, Darrell Night, survived his police escort into the winter prairie fields outside of the city. Unfortunately Rodney Naistus and Lawrence Wagner were not as lucky, they were found not far from where Night had been dropped off. The term ‘Starlight Tours’ was coined for this type of treatment, typically aimed at Aboriginal men. 

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 The commissioner of Indian Affairs in  1890  wrote: "The work of sub-dividing reserves has begun in earnest. The policy of destroying the tribal or communist system is assailed in every possible way and every effort [has been] made to implant a spirit of individual responsibility instead." As scholar Glen Coulthard states an important feature of Canadian Indian policy’s "long-term goal [was to] indoctrinate[e] the Indigenous populations to the principles of private property, possessive individualism, and menial wage work.”   Coulthard, Glen Sean. Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota, 2014. Print.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013. 

The commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1890 wrote: "The work of sub-dividing reserves has begun in earnest. The policy of destroying the tribal or communist system is assailed in every possible way and every effort [has been] made to implant a spirit of individual responsibility instead." As scholar Glen Coulthard states an important feature of Canadian Indian policy’s "long-term goal [was to] indoctrinate[e] the Indigenous populations to the principles of private property, possessive individualism, and menial wage work.” 

Coulthard, Glen Sean. Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota, 2014. Print.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013. 

 Native Women's Association of Canada (NWAC) puts the number of missing and murdered Indigenous women at  4,000 , which is 2,800 more than the RCMP previously reported. Honourable Patty Hajdu, a Canadian Liberal politician who represents Thunder Bay - Superior North stated that the 4,000 number is more believable than the RCMP's 1,200 figure. "When you actually start to add in, you know, disputed cases, for example, people that have claimed it's a suicide or death due to exposure, but in fact there's symptoms or signs that maybe it wasn't, then of course the numbers jump," - Hajdu.    NWAC Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls

Native Women's Association of Canada (NWAC) puts the number of missing and murdered Indigenous women at 4,000, which is 2,800 more than the RCMP previously reported. Honourable Patty Hajdu, a Canadian Liberal politician who represents Thunder Bay - Superior North stated that the 4,000 number is more believable than the RCMP's 1,200 figure. "When you actually start to add in, you know, disputed cases, for example, people that have claimed it's a suicide or death due to exposure, but in fact there's symptoms or signs that maybe it wasn't, then of course the numbers jump," - Hajdu. 

NWAC Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls

 Walk 4 Justice initiative's research stopped counting the number of missing and murdered women when it reached  4,232 .    Confusion reigns over number of missing, murdered indigenous women, CBC News

Walk 4 Justice initiative's research stopped counting the number of missing and murdered women when it reached 4,232.

Confusion reigns over number of missing, murdered indigenous women, CBC News

 The RCMP reported that  1,017  Aboriginal women has been killed between 1980 and 2012.    Confusion reigns over number of missing, murdered indigenous women, CBC News

The RCMP reported that 1,017 Aboriginal women has been killed between 1980 and 2012.

Confusion reigns over number of missing, murdered indigenous women, CBC News

 The RCMP reported that  164  Aboriginal women were considered missing between 1980 and 2012.    Confusion reigns over number of missing, murdered indigenous women, CBC News

The RCMP reported that 164 Aboriginal women were considered missing between 1980 and 2012.

Confusion reigns over number of missing, murdered indigenous women, CBC News

 In  1942 , during World War II, the Government of Canada needed a place for a military-training camp when they came across Ipperwash, a site found on Stoney Point Ojibway reserve in Ontario. The government offered the band $15 per acre and when the band refused the government confiscated the land with the promise to return the land once the war was over. It wasn’t until April 14, 2016 that a settlement was finally met, this was only after years of protests, conflicts and a public inquiry.   King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 1942, during World War II, the Government of Canada needed a place for a military-training camp when they came across Ipperwash, a site found on Stoney Point Ojibway reserve in Ontario. The government offered the band $15 per acre and when the band refused the government confiscated the land with the promise to return the land once the war was over. It wasn’t until April 14, 2016 that a settlement was finally met, this was only after years of protests, conflicts and a public inquiry. 

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 Shaughnessy Golf and Country Club in Vancouver needed a new site for their club in 1958; they found a perfect  162-acre  site over looking the Fraser River. This prime site happened to be owned by Musqueam Nation and because in 1956 all Aboriginal land was controlled by the Canadian government it was leased by the government for pennies on the dollar. In 1995 the leases came up for renewal and Musqueam Nation tried to raise the rent to market value. A series of court decisions by the Supreme Court of Canada (2000) concluded that Musqueam land was worth about 50% less of the adjacent non-Indian land but if Musqueam were to sell the land it would be appraised at full market value.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Shaughnessy Golf and Country Club in Vancouver needed a new site for their club in 1958; they found a perfect 162-acre site over looking the Fraser River. This prime site happened to be owned by Musqueam Nation and because in 1956 all Aboriginal land was controlled by the Canadian government it was leased by the government for pennies on the dollar. In 1995 the leases came up for renewal and Musqueam Nation tried to raise the rent to market value. A series of court decisions by the Supreme Court of Canada (2000) concluded that Musqueam land was worth about 50% less of the adjacent non-Indian land but if Musqueam were to sell the land it would be appraised at full market value.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 On April 9, 2016,  11  people attempted to take their own lives on Attawapiskat First Nation. In response the chief and council for the Attawapiskat First Nation on remote James Bay declared a state of emergency. It is believed socioeconomic structures such as poverty, lack of community resources and mental health support are fuelling the crisis.     Attawapiskat declares state of emergency over spate of suicide attempts, CBC News

On April 9, 2016, 11 people attempted to take their own lives on Attawapiskat First Nation. In response the chief and council for the Attawapiskat First Nation on remote James Bay declared a state of emergency. It is believed socioeconomic structures such as poverty, lack of community resources and mental health support are fuelling the crisis. 

Attawapiskat declares state of emergency over spate of suicide attempts, CBC News

 Attawapiskat First Nation home to 2,000 or so residents, saw  28  suicide attempts in March of 2016. It is believed socioeconomic structures such as poverty, lack of community resources and mental health support are fuelling the crisis. On April 9, 2016 Attawapiskat First Nation declared a state of emergency.     Attawapiskat declares state of emergency over spate of suicide attempts, CBC News

Attawapiskat First Nation home to 2,000 or so residents, saw 28 suicide attempts in March of 2016. It is believed socioeconomic structures such as poverty, lack of community resources and mental health support are fuelling the crisis. On April 9, 2016 Attawapiskat First Nation declared a state of emergency. 

Attawapiskat declares state of emergency over spate of suicide attempts, CBC News

 According to a report in 2000 from the Canadian Institute of Health, suicides among First Nations youth (aged 15 - 24) was  5 to 6  times higher than non-aboriginal youth in Canada.    Attawapiskat declares state of emergency over spate of suicide attempts, CBC News

According to a report in 2000 from the Canadian Institute of Health, suicides among First Nations youth (aged 15 - 24) was 5 to 6 times higher than non-aboriginal youth in Canada.

Attawapiskat declares state of emergency over spate of suicide attempts, CBC News

 In 1985 logging interests focused on Lyell Island (Haida territory), for  21  months Natives and non-Natives stood side by side blocking loggers and police. July 1987 Ottawa, British Columbia and the Haida signed a memorandum of agreement that created Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site.  King, Thomas.  The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America . University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

In 1985 logging interests focused on Lyell Island (Haida territory), for 21 months Natives and non-Natives stood side by side blocking loggers and police. July 1987 Ottawa, British Columbia and the Haida signed a memorandum of agreement that created Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian a Curious Account of Native People in North America. University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

 Government officials and mainstream media have a habit of using stereotypical racist rhetoric when speaking of Aboriginal Nations' funding often passing blame onto the leaders misuse and/or greed although the average salary of a Canadian citizen is 46,000/year while the average salary for an elected First Nation's leader is  36,000/year.   Palmater, Pamela D.  Indigenous Nationhood: Empowering Grassroots Citizens . Fernwood Publishing, 2015. 

Government officials and mainstream media have a habit of using stereotypical racist rhetoric when speaking of Aboriginal Nations' funding often passing blame onto the leaders misuse and/or greed although the average salary of a Canadian citizen is 46,000/year while the average salary for an elected First Nation's leader is 36,000/year.

Palmater, Pamela D. Indigenous Nationhood: Empowering Grassroots Citizens. Fernwood Publishing, 2015. 

 According to David Suzuki Foundation and the Council of Canadians, as of Fall 2016, there are  156  drinking water advisories affecting 110 First Nations communities.    Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

According to David Suzuki Foundation and the Council of Canadians, as of Fall 2016, there are 156 drinking water advisories affecting 110 First Nations communities.

Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

 Roxanne Green of Shoal Lake 40 First Nation said, "The protection of water and land is the beating heart of who we are as a people. It's our lifeline to everything." Residents of Shoal Lake haven't been able to drink community water for  19 years.     Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

Roxanne Green of Shoal Lake 40 First Nation said, "The protection of water and land is the beating heart of who we are as a people. It's our lifeline to everything." Residents of Shoal Lake haven't been able to drink community water for 19 years.

Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

 Ontario has the highest number of drinking water advisories in the country; as of November 2016, the province had  81  advisories, 68 of which were classified as long-tern, affecting 44 communities.     Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

Ontario has the highest number of drinking water advisories in the country; as of November 2016, the province had 81 advisories, 68 of which were classified as long-tern, affecting 44 communities. 

Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

 Ontario has the highest number of drinking water advisories in the country; as of November 2016, the province had 81 advisories,  68  of which were classified as long-tern, affecting 44 communities.     Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

Ontario has the highest number of drinking water advisories in the country; as of November 2016, the province had 81 advisories, 68 of which were classified as long-tern, affecting 44 communities. 

Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

 Ontario has the highest number of drinking water advisories in the country; as of November 2016, the province had 81 advisories, 68 of which were classified as long-tern, affecting  44  communities.     Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

Ontario has the highest number of drinking water advisories in the country; as of November 2016, the province had 81 advisories, 68 of which were classified as long-tern, affecting 44 communities. 

Minsky, Amy. “First Nations ‘Living in Third World Conditions’ as Communities Endure Water Advisories.” Global News

  1967  - Canadian confederation- confederation erased the Indigenous perspectives and replaced them with settler policies and narratives. Canada established a settler colonial state that worked through assimilationist systems such as the Indian Act, the residential school system, pass system, resource management, and willful ignorance of treaties.   Confederation comes at a cost: Indigenous peoples and the ongoing reality of colonialism in Canada   

1967 - Canadian confederation- confederation erased the Indigenous perspectives and replaced them with settler policies and narratives. Canada established a settler colonial state that worked through assimilationist systems such as the Indian Act, the residential school system, pass system, resource management, and willful ignorance of treaties. 

Confederation comes at a cost: Indigenous peoples and the ongoing reality of colonialism in Canada

 

 In  2017  Canada celebrated its 150 years; many Aboriginal people spoke up about the lack of acknowledgement within the general public and celebratory events. "I find it really insulting that there are 10,000 or 20,000 years of history on this continent." Anna Maria Tremonti tells CBC News "Yet Canadians are going to celebrate their 150 completely erasing and ignoring the thousands of years of Indigenous experience."   What does Canada 150 mean for Indigenous communities?

In 2017 Canada celebrated its 150 years; many Aboriginal people spoke up about the lack of acknowledgement within the general public and celebratory events. "I find it really insulting that there are 10,000 or 20,000 years of history on this continent." Anna Maria Tremonti tells CBC News "Yet Canadians are going to celebrate their 150 completely erasing and ignoring the thousands of years of Indigenous experience."

What does Canada 150 mean for Indigenous communities?

 On  May 10, 2015  CBC News reported, “Canada officially adopts United Nations declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples”. This declaration recognizes Indigenous peoples' basic human rights, as well as rights to self-determination, language, equality and land.      Canada officially adopts UN declaration on rights of Indigenous Peoples

On May 10, 2015 CBC News reported, “Canada officially adopts United Nations declaration on the rights of Indigenous Peoples”. This declaration recognizes Indigenous peoples' basic human rights, as well as rights to self-determination, language, equality and land.

 

Canada officially adopts UN declaration on rights of Indigenous Peoples

  61(1)  of the Indian Act states: “Indian moneys shall be expended only for the benefit of the Indians or bands for whose use and benefit in common the moneys are received or held, and subject to this Act and to the terms of any treaty or surrender, the Governor in Council may determine whether any purpose for which Indian moneys are used or are to be used is for the use and benefit of the band.”   Indian Act

61(1) of the Indian Act states: “Indian moneys shall be expended only for the benefit of the Indians or bands for whose use and benefit in common the moneys are received or held, and subject to this Act and to the terms of any treaty or surrender, the Governor in Council may determine whether any purpose for which Indian moneys are used or are to be used is for the use and benefit of the band.”

Indian Act

  71(1)  of the Indian Act states, “The Minister may operate farms on reserves and may employ such persons as he considers necessary to instruct Indians in farming and may purchase and distribute without charge pure seed to Indian farmers.”   Indian Act

71(1) of the Indian Act states, “The Minister may operate farms on reserves and may employ such persons as he considers necessary to instruct Indians in farming and may purchase and distribute without charge pure seed to Indian farmers.”

Indian Act

  73(1)  of the Indian Act states, “The Governor in Council may make regulations (a) for the protection and preservation of fur-bearing animals, fish and other game on reserves; (b) for the destruction of noxious weeds and the prevention of the spreading or prevalence of insects, pests or diseases that may destroy or injure vegetation on Indian reserves; (d) for the taxation, control and destruction of dogs and for the protection of sheep on reserves.”   Indian Act

73(1) of the Indian Act states, “The Governor in Council may make regulations (a) for the protection and preservation of fur-bearing animals, fish and other game on reserves; (b) for the destruction of noxious weeds and the prevention of the spreading or prevalence of insects, pests or diseases that may destroy or injure vegetation on Indian reserves; (d) for the taxation, control and destruction of dogs and for the protection of sheep on reserves.”

Indian Act

  91(1)  of the Indian Act states, “No person may, without the written consent of the Minister, acquire title to any of the following property situated on a reserve, namely, (a) an Indian grave house; (b) a carved grave pole; (c) a totem pole; (d) a carved house post; or (e) a rock embellished with paintings or carvings.”   Indian Act

91(1) of the Indian Act states, “No person may, without the written consent of the Minister, acquire title to any of the following property situated on a reserve, namely, (a) an Indian grave house; (b) a carved grave pole; (c) a totem pole; (d) a carved house post; or (e) a rock embellished with paintings or carvings.”

Indian Act

  93  of the Indian Act states, “A person who, without the written permission of the Minister or his duly authorized representative, (a) removes or permits anyone to remove from a reserve (i) minerals, stone, sand, gravel, clay or soil, or (ii) trees, saplings, shrubs, underbush, timber, cordwood or hay.”   Indian Act

93 of the Indian Act states, “A person who, without the written permission of the Minister or his duly authorized representative, (a) removes or permits anyone to remove from a reserve (i) minerals, stone, sand, gravel, clay or soil, or (ii) trees, saplings, shrubs, underbush, timber, cordwood or hay.”

Indian Act

 Aboriginal women and girls make up 4 percent of the total female population of Canada yet  16  percent of all female homicides are Aboriginal.   Dozens of Women Vanish on Canada's Highway of Tears, and Most Cases are Unsolved    

Aboriginal women and girls make up 4 percent of the total female population of Canada yet 16 percent of all female homicides are Aboriginal.

Dozens of Women Vanish on Canada's Highway of Tears, and Most Cases are Unsolved

 

 Until  1960  Aboriginals who wished to participate in Canadian democracy had to give up their Indian status in order to vote.   Hope Healing

Until 1960 Aboriginals who wished to participate in Canadian democracy had to give up their Indian status in order to vote.

Hope Healing

 In  1977 , "The Berger Inquiry final report recommends no gas pipeline be built in the Mackenzie Valley (Northwest Territories) until land claims are settled, setting a new precedent for relations between Aboriginal peoples and the federal government."   Hope Healing

In 1977, "The Berger Inquiry final report recommends no gas pipeline be built in the Mackenzie Valley (Northwest Territories) until land claims are settled, setting a new precedent for relations between Aboriginal peoples and the federal government."

Hope Healing

 In 1920 Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs Duncan Campbell Scott makes residential school attendance compulsory.    Timeline

In 1920 Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs Duncan Campbell Scott makes residential school attendance compulsory. 

Timeline

 The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, September 13,  2007  by 144 states, 4 votes were against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA). Described as setting "an important standard for the treatment of indigenous peoples and assisting them in combating discrimination and marginalization."   Where does Canada sit 10 years after UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples?

The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) was adopted by the General Assembly on Thursday, September 13, 2007 by 144 states, 4 votes were against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA). Described as setting "an important standard for the treatment of indigenous peoples and assisting them in combating discrimination and marginalization."

Where does Canada sit 10 years after UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples?

 The North West Mounted Police were established in  1873  to oppose the Northwest Rebellion/Resistance. In 1905 they become the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The RMCP played a vital role in the residential school system as well as enforcing the pass system. 

The North West Mounted Police were established in 1873 to oppose the Northwest Rebellion/Resistance. In 1905 they become the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The RMCP played a vital role in the residential school system as well as enforcing the pass system. 

 The Department of Indian Affairs was created in  1880  by the government of Canada. The department is responsible for policies relating to Aboriginal peoples of Canada. All Aboriginal peoples who fell under this title of status Indians, had to go through the Department of Indian Affairs for anything relating to their rights as Indians under treaties. Aboriginal peoples were largely exempt from attending any meetings or hearings that would address issues on how the department was run or the policies produced until the late 20th century.   Source

The Department of Indian Affairs was created in 1880 by the government of Canada. The department is responsible for policies relating to Aboriginal peoples of Canada. All Aboriginal peoples who fell under this title of status Indians, had to go through the Department of Indian Affairs for anything relating to their rights as Indians under treaties. Aboriginal peoples were largely exempt from attending any meetings or hearings that would address issues on how the department was run or the policies produced until the late 20th century.

Source

 There are  94  Calls to Action that resulted from The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) report. "In order to redress the legacy of residential schools and advance the process of Canadian reconciliation, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission makes the following calls to action." The TRC’s “mandate is to inform all Canadians about what happened in Indian Residential Schools.”   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

There are 94 Calls to Action that resulted from The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) report. "In order to redress the legacy of residential schools and advance the process of Canadian reconciliation, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission makes the following calls to action." The TRC’s “mandate is to inform all Canadians about what happened in Indian Residential Schools.”

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 The prevalence of type-2 diabetes in Aboriginal peoples is 3 to 5 times higher than the average Canadian citizen. "The higher rate of adverse health outcomes in Aboriginal peoples is associated with a number of factors, including lifestyle (diet and physical activity), genetic susceptibility, and historic-political and psychosocial factors, stemming from a history of colonization that severely undermined Aboriginal values, culture, and spiritual practices. Barriers to care that are unique to Aboriginal settings also exacerbate the problem with fragmented healthcare, poor chronic disease management, high healthcare staff turnover, and limited or non-existent surveillance. In addition, social determinants of health, including low income, lack of education, high unemployment, poor living conditions, lack of social support, negative stereotyping and stigmatization, and poor access to health services compound the problem."   Type 2 Diabetes in Aboriginal Peoples

The prevalence of type-2 diabetes in Aboriginal peoples is 3 to 5 times higher than the average Canadian citizen. "The higher rate of adverse health outcomes in Aboriginal peoples is associated with a number of factors, including lifestyle (diet and physical activity), genetic susceptibility, and historic-political and psychosocial factors, stemming from a history of colonization that severely undermined Aboriginal values, culture, and spiritual practices. Barriers to care that are unique to Aboriginal settings also exacerbate the problem with fragmented healthcare, poor chronic disease management, high healthcare staff turnover, and limited or non-existent surveillance. In addition, social determinants of health, including low income, lack of education, high unemployment, poor living conditions, lack of social support, negative stereotyping and stigmatization, and poor access to health services compound the problem."

Type 2 Diabetes in Aboriginal Peoples

 "In 1985, an amendment to the Indian Act, known as Bill  C-31 , was proposed with the specific intent of correcting more than 150 years of discrimination against First Nations women. Since the mid-1800s, it had become policy that when First Nations women married non-Aboriginal men, they automatically lost their Indian status.”   Source

"In 1985, an amendment to the Indian Act, known as Bill C-31, was proposed with the specific intent of correcting more than 150 years of discrimination against First Nations women. Since the mid-1800s, it had become policy that when First Nations women married non-Aboriginal men, they automatically lost their Indian status.”

Source

 In  1990 , Elijah Harper opposed the Meech Lake constitutional accord, which was a set of decentralizing reforms intended to persuade Quebec to consent to the repatriated Constitution of 1982. Harper opposed it "because we (Aboriginal peoples) weren't included in the Constitution. We were to recognize Quebec as a distinct society, whereas we as aboriginal people were completely left out." This act sparked inspiration in the aboriginal peoples and their allies to continue the struggle for recognition and resistance.    Elijah Harper

In 1990, Elijah Harper opposed the Meech Lake constitutional accord, which was a set of decentralizing reforms intended to persuade Quebec to consent to the repatriated Constitution of 1982. Harper opposed it "because we (Aboriginal peoples) weren't included in the Constitution. We were to recognize Quebec as a distinct society, whereas we as aboriginal people were completely left out." This act sparked inspiration in the aboriginal peoples and their allies to continue the struggle for recognition and resistance. 

Elijah Harper

 The Calder  (1973)  case reviewed the existence of Aboriginal title claimed over lands historically occupied by the Nisga'a peoples of northwestern British Columbia. While the case was lost, the Supreme Court of Canada's ruling nevertheless recognized for the first time that Aboriginal title has a place in Canadian law. The Calder case is considered the foundation for the Nisga'a Treaty of 2000 - the first modern land claim in British Columbia that gave the Nisga'a people self-government.   Calder Case

The Calder (1973) case reviewed the existence of Aboriginal title claimed over lands historically occupied by the Nisga'a peoples of northwestern British Columbia. While the case was lost, the Supreme Court of Canada's ruling nevertheless recognized for the first time that Aboriginal title has a place in Canadian law. The Calder case is considered the foundation for the Nisga'a Treaty of 2000 - the first modern land claim in British Columbia that gave the Nisga'a people self-government.

Calder Case

 In  1609  a Puritan preacher from New England delivered the following sermon; " Some affirm, and it is likely to be true, that these savages have no particular property in any part or parcel of that country, but only a general residency there, as wild beasts in the forest; for they range and wander up and down the country without any law or government, being led only by their own lusts and sensuality. There is not meum and teum (mine and them) amongst them. So that if the whole land should be taken from them, there is not a man that can complain of any particular wrong done unto him." It is this ignorant point of view that settler colonizers continued to believe terra nullius and discovery fables.    Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

In 1609 a Puritan preacher from New England delivered the following sermon; " Some affirm, and it is likely to be true, that these savages have no particular property in any part or parcel of that country, but only a general residency there, as wild beasts in the forest; for they range and wander up and down the country without any law or government, being led only by their own lusts and sensuality. There is not meum and teum (mine and them) amongst them. So that if the whole land should be taken from them, there is not a man that can complain of any particular wrong done unto him." It is this ignorant point of view that settler colonizers continued to believe terra nullius and discovery fables. 

Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

 On  Canada Day 2017  a peaceful protest of Indigenous activists and their allies took place at the statue of Edward Cornwallis in downtown Halifax. The gathering was organized to protest the statues commemorating presents and to turn attention to the mourning of genocidal Canadian histories of First Nations people. During their peaceful protest the alt-right group the proud boys showed up to counter-protest the Indigenous protest. The group of five men in polo shirts showed up singing and raising a Red Ensign flag, presumably trying to instigate a confrontation.   The Coast

On Canada Day 2017 a peaceful protest of Indigenous activists and their allies took place at the statue of Edward Cornwallis in downtown Halifax. The gathering was organized to protest the statues commemorating presents and to turn attention to the mourning of genocidal Canadian histories of First Nations people. During their peaceful protest the alt-right group the proud boys showed up to counter-protest the Indigenous protest. The group of five men in polo shirts showed up singing and raising a Red Ensign flag, presumably trying to instigate a confrontation.

The Coast

 In the 2011 National Household Survey, there were  1,836,035  people in Canada who reported having Aboriginal ancestry.   First Nations People in Canada

In the 2011 National Household Survey, there were 1,836,035 people in Canada who reported having Aboriginal ancestry.

First Nations People in Canada

  5.6%  of the Canadian population is Aboriginal.    First Nations People in Canada

5.6% of the Canadian population is Aboriginal. 

First Nations People in Canada

 According to the Indian Register there are  901,053  registered Indians living in Canada.   First Nations People in Canada

According to the Indian Register there are 901,053 registered Indians living in Canada.

First Nations People in Canada

  47.4%  of registered Indians live off reserve.    First Nations People in Canada

47.4% of registered Indians live off reserve. 

First Nations People in Canada

 There are  617  First Nations communities in Canada.    First Nations People in Canada

There are 617 First Nations communities in Canada. 

First Nations People in Canada

 There are  13  First Nations communities in Nova Scotia.   First Nations People in Canada

There are 13 First Nations communities in Nova Scotia.

First Nations People in Canada

 There are  30  First Nations communities in the Maritimes.   First Nations People in Canada

There are 30 First Nations communities in the Maritimes.

First Nations People in Canada

 There are  50  distinct First Nations Languages in Canada   First Nations People in Canada

There are 50 distinct First Nations Languages in Canada

First Nations People in Canada

 Section  35  of the Constitution Act of 1982 declares that Aboriginal peoples of Canada include Indian (First Nations), Inuit and Metis peoples.   Source

Section 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 declares that Aboriginal peoples of Canada include Indian (First Nations), Inuit and Metis peoples.

Source

 “(A) practice followed (the residential school system) that deliberately placed children with white families at great distance from their communities and families, this was known as the 'sixties scoop' which affected twenty thousand children, a period that lasted from the 1960s to the 1980s. Today  30 to 40  percent of all children placed in care are Indigenous, although they account for only 5 percent of all Canadian Children.”  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015

“(A) practice followed (the residential school system) that deliberately placed children with white families at great distance from their communities and families, this was known as the 'sixties scoop' which affected twenty thousand children, a period that lasted from the 1960s to the 1980s. Today 30 to 40 percent of all children placed in care are Indigenous, although they account for only 5 percent of all Canadian Children.”

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015

 (A) practice followed (the residential school system) that deliberately placed children with white families at great distance from their communities and families, this was known as the 'sixties scoop' which affected twently thousand children, a period that lasted from the 196os to the 1980s. Today 30 to 40 percent of all children placed in care are Indigenous, although they account for only  5  percent of all Canadian Children.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

(A) practice followed (the residential school system) that deliberately placed children with white families at great distance from their communities and families, this was known as the 'sixties scoop' which affected twently thousand children, a period that lasted from the 196os to the 1980s. Today 30 to 40 percent of all children placed in care are Indigenous, although they account for only 5 percent of all Canadian Children.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 Every  October 4  a march on Parliament, along with song and dance, takes place. Together the families of missing and murdered Indigenous women, their allies, and organizations that support their cause gather to remind the government of Canada that these issues need to addressed.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015. 

Every October 4 a march on Parliament, along with song and dance, takes place. Together the families of missing and murdered Indigenous women, their allies, and organizations that support their cause gather to remind the government of Canada that these issues need to addressed.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015. 

 "Since  2006 , Sisters in Spirit gatherings have taken place every year on October 4; memory walks are held on February 14, the day in 1991 that Vancouver's Indigneous women began honouring all their missing and murdered sisters. A world of struggle and tears as densely populated, once comes upon it, as it is invisible to the majority of Canadians."  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

"Since 2006, Sisters in Spirit gatherings have taken place every year on October 4; memory walks are held on February 14, the day in 1991 that Vancouver's Indigneous women began honouring all their missing and murdered sisters. A world of struggle and tears as densely populated, once comes upon it, as it is invisible to the majority of Canadians."

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 "Between  1969 and 2006 , forty-six women, most of them Indigenous, disappeared or were murdered" on the BC's northern highways. This section is dubbed the Highway of Tears.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

"Between 1969 and 2006, forty-six women, most of them Indigenous, disappeared or were murdered" on the BC's northern highways. This section is dubbed the Highway of Tears.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 "In her thesis on missing and murdered Indigenous women and the Canadian justice system, researcher Maryanne Pearce underlines the frightening connection between the two (adequate and regular public transportation in the isolated mountainous region along Highway 16 and 5); the dearth of public transportation makes it impossible for young Indigenous people in the region (over  15  percent of B.C.'s northern residents are Indigenous) to find work: their low incomes keep them from owning a car; without a car, they have to hitchhike and put themselves in harm's way."  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015. pg.47

"In her thesis on missing and murdered Indigenous women and the Canadian justice system, researcher Maryanne Pearce underlines the frightening connection between the two (adequate and regular public transportation in the isolated mountainous region along Highway 16 and 5); the dearth of public transportation makes it impossible for young Indigenous people in the region (over 15 percent of B.C.'s northern residents are Indigenous) to find work: their low incomes keep them from owning a car; without a car, they have to hitchhike and put themselves in harm's way."

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015. pg.47

 "Late in the game, in  2009 , the RCMP took stock of the situation and struck a special task force to investigate murders and disappearances along the Highway of Tears and other highways. Eighteen cases were chosen for closer scrutiny. After hundreds of DNA samples and more than two thousand interrogations, the E-PANA group was able to shed light on the cases of three young women."  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

"Late in the game, in 2009, the RCMP took stock of the situation and struck a special task force to investigate murders and disappearances along the Highway of Tears and other highways. Eighteen cases were chosen for closer scrutiny. After hundreds of DNA samples and more than two thousand interrogations, the E-PANA group was able to shed light on the cases of three young women."

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 On  October 4, 2013 , Thomas Mulcair, leader of the New Democratic Party and the Official Opposition, stated: "The number of women living in the Ottawa region is equal to the total number of Aboriginal women in Canada. If, in a city the size of Ottawa, 600 women were murdered or missing, do you really think there would have to be protests to get a national inquiry?"  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

On October 4, 2013, Thomas Mulcair, leader of the New Democratic Party and the Official Opposition, stated: "The number of women living in the Ottawa region is equal to the total number of Aboriginal women in Canada. If, in a city the size of Ottawa, 600 women were murdered or missing, do you really think there would have to be protests to get a national inquiry?"

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 Indigenous women are  7  times more likely to be murdered than non-Indigenous women.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

Indigenous women are 7 times more likely to be murdered than non-Indigenous women.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 Maryanne Pearce listed  912  cases, which represents 1/4 of all missing and murdered women, while Indigenous women only represent 4.3% of all women in Canada.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

Maryanne Pearce listed 912 cases, which represents 1/4 of all missing and murdered women, while Indigenous women only represent 4.3% of all women in Canada.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 Maryanne Pearce listed 912 cases, which represents  1/4  of all missing and murdered women, while Indigenous women only represent 4.3% of all women in Canada.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.   

Maryanne Pearce listed 912 cases, which represents 1/4 of all missing and murdered women, while Indigenous women only represent 4.3% of all women in Canada.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 

 Maryanne Pearce listed 912 cases, which represents 1/4 of all missing and murdered women, while Indigenous women only represent  4.3%  of all women in Canada.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

Maryanne Pearce listed 912 cases, which represents 1/4 of all missing and murdered women, while Indigenous women only represent 4.3% of all women in Canada.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 According to Maryanne Pearce's research  80%  of missing and murdered Indigenous women were not involved in sex work; which is commonly assumed in cases of missing and murdered women.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

According to Maryanne Pearce's research 80% of missing and murdered Indigenous women were not involved in sex work; which is commonly assumed in cases of missing and murdered women.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 "The murder of Loretta Saunders in  February 2014  became the subject of heated debate in the House of Commons and triggered a series of radical articles on Indigenous and feminist Indigenous blogs. Loretta was twenty-six and three months pregnant. She was of Inuit heritage and studying at St.Mary's University in Halifax, 2,000km from her small hometown Labrador. The subject of the thesis she was working on was missing and murdered Indigenous women. Police believe she was killed February 13, the very day a 23,000-name petition calling for a national inquiry was delivered and the day before annual countrywide commemorative marches took place... The symbolism defies the imagination."  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015. 

"The murder of Loretta Saunders in February 2014 became the subject of heated debate in the House of Commons and triggered a series of radical articles on Indigenous and feminist Indigenous blogs. Loretta was twenty-six and three months pregnant. She was of Inuit heritage and studying at St.Mary's University in Halifax, 2,000km from her small hometown Labrador. The subject of the thesis she was working on was missing and murdered Indigenous women. Police believe she was killed February 13, the very day a 23,000-name petition calling for a national inquiry was delivered and the day before annual countrywide commemorative marches took place... The symbolism defies the imagination."

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015. 

 According to historical documents, the first residential school opened it’s doors to young Aboriginal students as early as 1830, the last known residential school closed it’s doors in 1996 making the residential school system older than Canada itself.   Residential Schools

According to historical documents, the first residential school opened it’s doors to young Aboriginal students as early as 1830, the last known residential school closed it’s doors in 1996 making the residential school system older than Canada itself.

Residential Schools

 The Truth and Reconciliation Commission revealed that at least  4,134  children died in residential schools from untreated illness, abuse, suicide, and accidents during attempts to flee, as well as starvation and malnutrition.  Walter, Emmanuelle.  Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada . Harper Collins Books, 2015.

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission revealed that at least 4,134 children died in residential schools from untreated illness, abuse, suicide, and accidents during attempts to flee, as well as starvation and malnutrition.

Walter, Emmanuelle. Stolen Sisters: an Inquiry into Feminicide in Canada. Harper Collins Books, 2015.

 "The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care, thirteen were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and ten children were the victims of homicide."    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

"The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care, thirteen were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and ten children were the victims of homicide." 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 "The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care,  thirteen  were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and ten children were the victims of homicide."    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

"The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care, thirteen were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and ten children were the victims of homicide." 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 "The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care, thirteen were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and ten children were the victims of homicide."    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

"The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care, thirteen were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and ten children were the victims of homicide." 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 "The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care, thirteen were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and  ten  children were the victims of homicide."    Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

"The child-welfare system apprehends too many children while, at the same time, failing to protect them… Research in Alberta indicated that 78% of children who have died in foster care between 1999 and mid-2013 were Aboriginal. Since Aboriginal children, a minority of the overall population, represent 59% of children in care in Alberta, the rate of Aboriginal child deaths in care is even more disproportionate that the apprehension rate. Of the seventy-four recorded deaths of Aboriginal children in care, thirteen were due to accidents, twelve children committed suicide, and ten children were the victims of homicide." 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 " Duncan Campbell Scott wrote a poem in 1898, describing Indians as savages and on the verge of extinction.   She stands full-troated and with careless pose,   This woman of a weird and waning race,   The tragic savage lurking in her face,   Where all her pagan passion burns and glows;   Her blood is mingled with her ancient foes,   And thrills with war and wildness in her veins;   Her rebel lips are dabbled with the stains   Of feuds and forays and her father's woes.   And closer in the shawl about her breast,   The latest promise of her nation's doom,   Paler than she her baby clings and lies,   The primal warrior gleaming from his eyes;   He sulks, and burdened with his infant gloom,   He draws his heavy brows and will not rest.   Source

" Duncan Campbell Scott wrote a poem in 1898, describing Indians as savages and on the verge of extinction. 

She stands full-troated and with careless pose, 

This woman of a weird and waning race, 

The tragic savage lurking in her face, 

Where all her pagan passion burns and glows; 

Her blood is mingled with her ancient foes, 

And thrills with war and wildness in her veins; 

Her rebel lips are dabbled with the stains 

Of feuds and forays and her father's woes. 

And closer in the shawl about her breast, 

The latest promise of her nation's doom, 

Paler than she her baby clings and lies, 

The primal warrior gleaming from his eyes; 

He sulks, and burdened with his infant gloom, 

He draws his heavy brows and will not rest.

Source

 "From one million government and school records - only  one-fifth  of the documents known to exist - they identifies three thousand deaths at residential schools. The schools principals hadn't bothered naming almost a quarter of those children, and there were likely many more in the records that researchers weren't allowed to access. The schools also stopped reporting deaths in 1917"  Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

"From one million government and school records - only one-fifth of the documents known to exist - they identifies three thousand deaths at residential schools. The schools principals hadn't bothered naming almost a quarter of those children, and there were likely many more in the records that researchers weren't allowed to access. The schools also stopped reporting deaths in 1917"

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

 "From one million government and school records - only one-fifth of the documents known to exist - they identifies three thousand deaths at residential schools. The schools principals hadn't bothered naming almost a  quarter  of those children, and there were likely many more in the records that researchers weren't allowed to access. The schools also stopped reporting deaths in 1917"  Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

"From one million government and school records - only one-fifth of the documents known to exist - they identifies three thousand deaths at residential schools. The schools principals hadn't bothered naming almost a quarter of those children, and there were likely many more in the records that researchers weren't allowed to access. The schools also stopped reporting deaths in 1917"

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

 "In 1907 Frank Pedley, the superintendent general of Indian Affairs, asked the Department's chief medical officer, Peter Bryce, to examine the health of the residential school students…Bryce spent three months examining students and talking to staff members at thirty-five schools in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. He found that one in four children had died of tuberculosis at school or soon after leaving it. He estimated that a death rate at the schools of between  35 and 60  percent." Bryce was shortly forced out of his position for taking a stand against the schools and the environment First Nations were living in due colonial rule.  Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

"In 1907 Frank Pedley, the superintendent general of Indian Affairs, asked the Department's chief medical officer, Peter Bryce, to examine the health of the residential school students…Bryce spent three months examining students and talking to staff members at thirty-five schools in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. He found that one in four children had died of tuberculosis at school or soon after leaving it. He estimated that a death rate at the schools of between 35 and 60 percent." Bryce was shortly forced out of his position for taking a stand against the schools and the environment First Nations were living in due colonial rule.

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

 "In  1914 , (Duncan Campbell) Scott, now deputy superintendent of Indian Affairs, had 'the troublesome Mr.Bryce' removed from 'Indian work' to focus on immigrant health. 'The cost of compiling such statistics far outweighed the benefit of the information,' he wrote of Bryce's most impassioned work.” Bryce was openly against the residential school system and sent many letters to government officials stating these institutions were not equipped to function properly. “Dr. O. I. Grain replaced Bryce and found the residential schools in satisfactory condition.”  Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

"In 1914, (Duncan Campbell) Scott, now deputy superintendent of Indian Affairs, had 'the troublesome Mr.Bryce' removed from 'Indian work' to focus on immigrant health. 'The cost of compiling such statistics far outweighed the benefit of the information,' he wrote of Bryce's most impassioned work.” Bryce was openly against the residential school system and sent many letters to government officials stating these institutions were not equipped to function properly. “Dr. O. I. Grain replaced Bryce and found the residential schools in satisfactory condition.”

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

 Rev. Jeremiah Mackey was the founding principal at the Shubenacadie Residential School in Nova Scotia. He ran the school from  1930-1943 ; many survivors who attended the school during this time know the thirteen-year period as Mackey’s ‘reign of terror’.  Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

Rev. Jeremiah Mackey was the founding principal at the Shubenacadie Residential School in Nova Scotia. He ran the school from 1930-1943; many survivors who attended the school during this time know the thirteen-year period as Mackey’s ‘reign of terror’.

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

 "Father Mackey's discipline made the news in June 1934 after  nineteen  boys were beaten, shaved, and starved for stealing fifty-three dollars from a cash box in the Sister Superior's office which they spent on treats and toys before giving the rest to friends. Mackey enlisted an RCMP constable to interrogate the boys he suspected. Nobody confessed, so Mackey beat them all. He had the handyman make him a leather strap with seven knotted tails. Mackey whipped the boys' bare backs until he was tired, then has the handyman take over. He beat them so long and hard that one of the tails fell off and two hung so loose that he pulled them off. The RCMP constable and Mackey observed. Mackey then took away the boys' eating privileges for five days."   Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

"Father Mackey's discipline made the news in June 1934 after nineteen boys were beaten, shaved, and starved for stealing fifty-three dollars from a cash box in the Sister Superior's office which they spent on treats and toys before giving the rest to friends. Mackey enlisted an RCMP constable to interrogate the boys he suspected. Nobody confessed, so Mackey beat them all. He had the handyman make him a leather strap with seven knotted tails. Mackey whipped the boys' bare backs until he was tired, then has the handyman take over. He beat them so long and hard that one of the tails fell off and two hung so loose that he pulled them off. The RCMP constable and Mackey observed. Mackey then took away the boys' eating privileges for five days." 

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

 Shubenacadie was built for  125  child residents, but from the start it was overcrowded, taking 146 in its first year - 70 boys and 76 girls. By far the biggest class was grade 1, where the students ranged from 4 to 7 years old. At times, 62 of them crammed themselves into one classroom. The lower grades remained the most overcrowded through the lifespan of the school. By 1938 the number of child residents ballooned to 175, 15 more students than regulations allowed and 50 more than the school was designed to hold."  Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

Shubenacadie was built for 125 child residents, but from the start it was overcrowded, taking 146 in its first year - 70 boys and 76 girls. By far the biggest class was grade 1, where the students ranged from 4 to 7 years old. At times, 62 of them crammed themselves into one classroom. The lower grades remained the most overcrowded through the lifespan of the school. By 1938 the number of child residents ballooned to 175, 15 more students than regulations allowed and 50 more than the school was designed to hold."

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. Nimbus Publishing, 2014.

 "Most experts on Mi'kmaq and Maliseet treaties would argue that there are eleven Maritime treaties in existence but some say that there are as many as thirty Maritime treaties. The Covenant Chain of treaties signifies an on-going treaty relationship.”   Treaties

"Most experts on Mi'kmaq and Maliseet treaties would argue that there are eleven Maritime treaties in existence but some say that there are as many as thirty Maritime treaties. The Covenant Chain of treaties signifies an on-going treaty relationship.”

Treaties

 On February 17, 2015 a dispute over unpaid bills led to a decision not to send volunteer firefighters to a fatal house fire on a northern Saskatchewan First Nation. The fire killed two Makwa Sahgaiehcan toddlers because the First Nation owed the Villiage of Loon Lake, who is generally responsible fore emergency services,  $3,380.89.    Makwa Sahgaiehcan deadly fire: Unpaid bills of $3,400 part of response dispute

On February 17, 2015 a dispute over unpaid bills led to a decision not to send volunteer firefighters to a fatal house fire on a northern Saskatchewan First Nation. The fire killed two Makwa Sahgaiehcan toddlers because the First Nation owed the Villiage of Loon Lake, who is generally responsible fore emergency services, $3,380.89.

Makwa Sahgaiehcan deadly fire: Unpaid bills of $3,400 part of response dispute

 In  2013  protests in New Brunswick resulted in a violent clash between First Nations people, along with allies, and the RCMP who moved to enforce a court injunction against the protesters' blockade. The protest was over a potential shale gas site in New Brunswick on traditional land, all resource development are to be discussed with the aboriginal people of the area, even if not on reserve land.   N.B. fracking protests and the fight for aboriginal rights    

In 2013 protests in New Brunswick resulted in a violent clash between First Nations people, along with allies, and the RCMP who moved to enforce a court injunction against the protesters' blockade. The protest was over a potential shale gas site in New Brunswick on traditional land, all resource development are to be discussed with the aboriginal people of the area, even if not on reserve land.

N.B. fracking protests and the fight for aboriginal rights

 

 "The Chief Coroner for Ontario released an especially rare and powerful report in 2011 on the child suicide epidemic in Pikangikum First Nation which had declared a state of emergency – a desperate call for help that went unanswered by Canada. Within a two year period between 2006 and 2008,  16  children between the ages of 10-19 committed suicide. 16 children died – not from accidental car crashes or unpreventable diseases but because the “basic necessities of life are absent” in Pikangikum who struggles to heal and survive amidst the “backdrop of colonialism, racism and social exclusion” and government neglect.16 little First Nation children committed suicide because the Canadian state creates and maintains the conditions of life that will either kill them or make them so hopeless they will kill themselves. That’s the UN definition of genocide." - Pamala Palmater   Pamala Palmater

"The Chief Coroner for Ontario released an especially rare and powerful report in 2011 on the child suicide epidemic in Pikangikum First Nation which had declared a state of emergency – a desperate call for help that went unanswered by Canada. Within a two year period between 2006 and 2008, 16 children between the ages of 10-19 committed suicide. 16 children died – not from accidental car crashes or unpreventable diseases but because the “basic necessities of life are absent” in Pikangikum who struggles to heal and survive amidst the “backdrop of colonialism, racism and social exclusion” and government neglect.16 little First Nation children committed suicide because the Canadian state creates and maintains the conditions of life that will either kill them or make them so hopeless they will kill themselves. That’s the UN definition of genocide." - Pamala Palmater

Pamala Palmater

  25-30%  of prison populations are Indigenous - yet Indigenous people make up less than 5% of Canada's population   Urgent Situation Report on Humanitarian Crisis in Canada    Urgent Situation Report on Humanitarian Crisis in Canada

25-30% of prison populations are Indigenous - yet Indigenous people make up less than 5% of Canada's population

Urgent Situation Report on Humanitarian Crisis in Canada

Urgent Situation Report on Humanitarian Crisis in Canada

 In cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women, where the information is known, the vast majority of women in NWAC's (Native Women's Association of Canada) database (the database has information on 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls) (88%) were mothers. NWAC estimates that more than  440  children have been impacted by the disappearance or murder of their mother.   NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

In cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women, where the information is known, the vast majority of women in NWAC's (Native Women's Association of Canada) database (the database has information on 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls) (88%) were mothers. NWAC estimates that more than 440 children have been impacted by the disappearance or murder of their mother.

NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

 Of the cases NWAC's (Native Women's Association of Canada) database (the database has information on 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls) 70% of the women and girls disappeared from an urban area. Only a small number of cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and children were found on reserves.   NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

Of the cases NWAC's (Native Women's Association of Canada) database (the database has information on 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls) 70% of the women and girls disappeared from an urban area. Only a small number of cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and children were found on reserves.

NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

 Of the cases NWAC's (Native Women's Association of Canada) database (the database has information on 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls) 60% of the women and girls were found murdered in an urban area. Only a small number of cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and children were found on reserves.   NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

Of the cases NWAC's (Native Women's Association of Canada) database (the database has information on 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls) 60% of the women and girls were found murdered in an urban area. Only a small number of cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and children were found on reserves.

NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

 Native Women's Association (NWAC) database contains 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls. "Nearly half of murder cases in NWAC’s database remain unsolved. NWAC has found that only 53% of murder cases involving Aboriginal women and girls have led to charges of homicide. This is dramatically different from the national clearance rate for homicides in Canada, which was last reported as 84%"   NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

Native Women's Association (NWAC) database contains 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls. "Nearly half of murder cases in NWAC’s database remain unsolved. NWAC has found that only 53% of murder cases involving Aboriginal women and girls have led to charges of homicide. This is dramatically different from the national clearance rate for homicides in Canada, which was last reported as 84%"

NWAC's Fact Sheet Missing and Murdered Women and Girls

 In  1883,  Public Works Minister Hector Langevin argued to parliament "if you wish to educate these children you must separate them from their parents during the time that they are being educated. If you leave them in the family they may know how to read and write, but they still remain savages, whereas by separating them in the way proposed, they acquire the habits and tastes—it is to be hoped only the good tastes—of civilized people."   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

In 1883, Public Works Minister Hector Langevin argued to parliament "if you wish to educate these children you must separate them from their parents during the time that they are being educated. If you leave them in the family they may know how to read and write, but they still remain savages, whereas by separating them in the way proposed, they acquire the habits and tastes—it is to be hoped only the good tastes—of civilized people."

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 The Canadian government documents a long-standing, government-run experiment that spanned the entire country and involved at least 1,300 Aboriginals, most of them children. Beginning in 1942 with government researchers visiting remote reserve communities in northern Manitoba. These communities were effected by the collapsing of the fur trade and declining governmental support. "The researchers suggested those problems - 'so long regarded as inherent or hereditary traits in the Indian race'- were in fact the result of malnutrition. Instead of recommending an increase in support, the researchers decided that isolated, dependent, hungry people would be ideal subjects for tests on the effects of different diets." Vitamin supplements were then added to some of the diets of selected Aboriginal peoples of selected areas. This experimentation also occurred in residential schools across the country.   Canadian government withheld food from hungry aboriginal kids in 1940s nutritional experiments, research finds    

The Canadian government documents a long-standing, government-run experiment that spanned the entire country and involved at least 1,300 Aboriginals, most of them children. Beginning in 1942 with government researchers visiting remote reserve communities in northern Manitoba. These communities were effected by the collapsing of the fur trade and declining governmental support. "The researchers suggested those problems - 'so long regarded as inherent or hereditary traits in the Indian race'- were in fact the result of malnutrition. Instead of recommending an increase in support, the researchers decided that isolated, dependent, hungry people would be ideal subjects for tests on the effects of different diets." Vitamin supplements were then added to some of the diets of selected Aboriginal peoples of selected areas. This experimentation also occurred in residential schools across the country.

Canadian government withheld food from hungry aboriginal kids in 1940s nutritional experiments, research finds

 

 The vitamin supplement research continued and spread in 1947 plans were developed for research on about 1,000 hungry Aboriginal children in six residential schools, Port Alberni, BC; Kenora, Ont; Shubenacadie, NS; and Lethbridge, Alta. "One school deliberately held milk rations for two years to less than half the recommended amount to get a 'baseline' reading for when the allowance was increased. At another, children were divided into one group that received vitamin, iron and iodine supplements and one that didn't."   Canadian government withheld food from hungry aboriginal kids in 1940s nutritional experiments, research finds

The vitamin supplement research continued and spread in 1947 plans were developed for research on about 1,000 hungry Aboriginal children in six residential schools, Port Alberni, BC; Kenora, Ont; Shubenacadie, NS; and Lethbridge, Alta. "One school deliberately held milk rations for two years to less than half the recommended amount to get a 'baseline' reading for when the allowance was increased. At another, children were divided into one group that received vitamin, iron and iodine supplements and one that didn't."

Canadian government withheld food from hungry aboriginal kids in 1940s nutritional experiments, research finds

 Nora Bernard, a former student of the Shubenacadie residential school, began interviewing former students in 1987. In 1995, Bernard formed the Shubenacadie Indian Residential School Survivors Association and started registering survivors.   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

Nora Bernard, a former student of the Shubenacadie residential school, began interviewing former students in 1987. In 1995, Bernard formed the Shubenacadie Indian Residential School Survivors Association and started registering survivors. 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 Former Residential school students started filing lawsuits against the federal government and churches over the treatment they survived. By 2005, it was estimated that the volume surpassed 18,000 lawsuits." The federal government finally agreed to enter into a process intend(ing) to negotiate a settlement to the growing number of class-action suits. The Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) was reached in 2006 and approved by the courts in the following year. The IRSSA has five main components: 1) a Common Experience Payment; 2) an Independent Assessment Process; 3) support for the Aboriginal Health Foundation; 4) support for residential school commemoration; and 5) the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Through the Common Experience Payment, former students would receive a payment of $10,000 for the first year that they attended a residential school, and an additional $3,000 for each additional year or partial year of attendance." I would like to add that these proceedings are very similar to that undergone in rape cases in that sometimes the victims are re-traumatized by the court process. In this many survivors, I believe, do not come forward; one being my grandmother.   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

Former Residential school students started filing lawsuits against the federal government and churches over the treatment they survived. By 2005, it was estimated that the volume surpassed 18,000 lawsuits." The federal government finally agreed to enter into a process intend(ing) to negotiate a settlement to the growing number of class-action suits. The Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement (IRSSA) was reached in 2006 and approved by the courts in the following year. The IRSSA has five main components: 1) a Common Experience Payment; 2) an Independent Assessment Process; 3) support for the Aboriginal Health Foundation; 4) support for residential school commemoration; and 5) the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Through the Common Experience Payment, former students would receive a payment of $10,000 for the first year that they attended a residential school, and an additional $3,000 for each additional year or partial year of attendance." I would like to add that these proceedings are very similar to that undergone in rape cases in that sometimes the victims are re-traumatized by the court process. In this many survivors, I believe, do not come forward; one being my grandmother.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

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 Currently in 2017 a pre-confederation scalping law still exists in Nova Scotia. The British proclamation made in 1749 was a law that offers a bounty for Mi'kmaq scalps, which both the federal government and the provincial government can't seem to get behind a way to move forward with removing the law from the books.    The Coast    CBC News

Currently in 2017 a pre-confederation scalping law still exists in Nova Scotia. The British proclamation made in 1749 was a law that offers a bounty for Mi'kmaq scalps, which both the federal government and the provincial government can't seem to get behind a way to move forward with removing the law from the books. 

The Coast

CBC News

 In  1896  gold was discovered in the Klondike region of northwestern Canada resulting in a massive scale migration of Europeans looking to strike it rich. This produced many conflicts with local Indigenous populations.  Short, Damien. "'A Slow Industrial Genocide': Tar Sands and the Indigenous Peoples of Northern Alberta." Academia.edu - Share Research. Taylor and Francis Group, Jan. 2012. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.

In 1896 gold was discovered in the Klondike region of northwestern Canada resulting in a massive scale migration of Europeans looking to strike it rich. This produced many conflicts with local Indigenous populations.

Short, Damien. "'A Slow Industrial Genocide': Tar Sands and the Indigenous Peoples of Northern Alberta." Academia.edu - Share Research. Taylor and Francis Group, Jan. 2012. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.

 Despite the education available in our libraries and online, through multiple sources, despite the conversations that are happening online, in classrooms, on mainstream media outlets, there is still so much mis-education, and plain ignorance, in Aboriginal histories and the relationship between settlers and First Nations of Canada. Take for instance the editorial published online by The Globe and Main on  April 3, 2017 , the editorial states that South Africa’s apartheid is incomparable with Canada’s treatment of Aboriginal peoples. This piece sparked online heated debates and discussions; in particular Senator Murray Sinclair blasted the newspaper saying the piece was racist and inaccurate, that “apartheid is exactly what happened here (Canada)”. Sinclair goes on to explain that the belief that Canada was unpopulated was a settler excuse for the fallacy for terra nullius. Sinclair continues saying that “There are several expert reports which say that the population of the Americas was higher than the population of Europe at the time of contact, and there are experts who assert, with considerable evidence, that Columbus and his conquistadors were responsible for the genocide of more than 20 million Indigenous people within a very short period of time."   The Globe and Mail

Despite the education available in our libraries and online, through multiple sources, despite the conversations that are happening online, in classrooms, on mainstream media outlets, there is still so much mis-education, and plain ignorance, in Aboriginal histories and the relationship between settlers and First Nations of Canada. Take for instance the editorial published online by The Globe and Main on April 3, 2017, the editorial states that South Africa’s apartheid is incomparable with Canada’s treatment of Aboriginal peoples. This piece sparked online heated debates and discussions; in particular Senator Murray Sinclair blasted the newspaper saying the piece was racist and inaccurate, that “apartheid is exactly what happened here (Canada)”. Sinclair goes on to explain that the belief that Canada was unpopulated was a settler excuse for the fallacy for terra nullius. Sinclair continues saying that “There are several expert reports which say that the population of the Americas was higher than the population of Europe at the time of contact, and there are experts who assert, with considerable evidence, that Columbus and his conquistadors were responsible for the genocide of more than 20 million Indigenous people within a very short period of time."

The Globe and Mail

 In  1918  an amendment to the Indian Act that allowed the Superintendent-General to lease out uncultivated reserve lands to non-aboriginals if the new lease-holder used it for farming or pasture.   Tidridge

In 1918 an amendment to the Indian Act that allowed the Superintendent-General to lease out uncultivated reserve lands to non-aboriginals if the new lease-holder used it for farming or pasture.

Tidridge

 In  1927  an amendment to the Indian Act that prevented anyone (aboriginal or otherwise) from soliciting funds for Indian legal claims without special license from the Superintendent-General. This prevented any First Nation from pursuing aboriginal land claims.   Tidridge

In 1927 an amendment to the Indian Act that prevented anyone (aboriginal or otherwise) from soliciting funds for Indian legal claims without special license from the Superintendent-General. This prevented any First Nation from pursuing aboriginal land claims.

Tidridge

 In  1936  an amendment to the Indian Act allowed Indian agents to direct band council meetings and to cast the deciding vote in the event of a tie.   Tidridge

In 1936 an amendment to the Indian Act allowed Indian agents to direct band council meetings and to cast the deciding vote in the event of a tie.

Tidridge

 In  1930  an amendment to prevent a pool hall owner, otherwise known as a bar owner, from allowing entrance to an Indian. The owner could face a fine or a one-month jail term.   Tidridge

In 1930 an amendment to prevent a pool hall owner, otherwise known as a bar owner, from allowing entrance to an Indian. The owner could face a fine or a one-month jail term.

Tidridge

 A quote from Harold Cardinal’s  1969  The Unjust Society, “We do not want the Indian Act retained because it is a good piece of legislation. It isn’t. It is discriminatory from start to finish. But it is a lever in our hands and an embarrassment to the government, as it should be. No just society and no society with even pretensions to being just can long tolerate such a piece of legislation, but we would rather continue to live in bondage under the inequitable Indian Act than surrender our sacred rights. Any time the government wants to honour its obligations to us we are more than ready to help devise new Indian legislation.”  Cardinal, Harold. The Unjust Society. Douglas & McIntyre, 2011.

A quote from Harold Cardinal’s 1969 The Unjust Society, “We do not want the Indian Act retained because it is a good piece of legislation. It isn’t. It is discriminatory from start to finish. But it is a lever in our hands and an embarrassment to the government, as it should be. No just society and no society with even pretensions to being just can long tolerate such a piece of legislation, but we would rather continue to live in bondage under the inequitable Indian Act than surrender our sacred rights. Any time the government wants to honour its obligations to us we are more than ready to help devise new Indian legislation.”

Cardinal, Harold. The Unjust Society. Douglas & McIntyre, 2011.

 Frank Calder was the first Indigenous person elected in Canada under the BC New Democratic Party from  1949-1975 . Calder was an important figure in establishing treaty rights in the case "Calder vs. Attorney General of British Columbia"   Wikipedia

Frank Calder was the first Indigenous person elected in Canada under the BC New Democratic Party from 1949-1975. Calder was an important figure in establishing treaty rights in the case "Calder vs. Attorney General of British Columbia"

Wikipedia

 Leonard Marchand was the first Aboriginal Canadian elected to the Canadian House of Commons under the Liberal Party for Kamloops-Cariboo(BC)   Leonard Marchard

Leonard Marchand was the first Aboriginal Canadian elected to the Canadian House of Commons under the Liberal Party for Kamloops-Cariboo(BC)

Leonard Marchard

 Carl Beam's The North American Iceberg, 1985, was the first contemporary Aboriginal art work purchased by the National Gallery of Canada.    The Nation Gallery's moment of truth

Carl Beam's The North American Iceberg, 1985, was the first contemporary Aboriginal art work purchased by the National Gallery of Canada. 

The Nation Gallery's moment of truth

 Aboriginal people have incomes well below non-Aboriginals. "The median income for Aboriginal people in 2006 was  30%  lower than the median income for non-aboriginal workers.   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

Aboriginal people have incomes well below non-Aboriginals. "The median income for Aboriginal people in 2006 was 30% lower than the median income for non-aboriginal workers.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

  8.7%  of First Nations peoples,  5.1%  of Inuit, and  11.7%  of Metis have a university degree, according to the 2011 census.   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

8.7% of First Nations peoples, 5.1% of Inuit, and 11.7% of Metis have a university degree, according to the 2011 census.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 "The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) lists 36% of Canada's Aboriginal languages as being critically endangered, in the sense that they are used by the great-grandparents and grandparent generation; and 16% are definitely endangered, in the sense that they are used by the parental and the two previous generations. The remaining languages are all vulnerable."   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

"The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) lists 36% of Canada's Aboriginal languages as being critically endangered, in the sense that they are used by the great-grandparents and grandparent generation; and 16% are definitely endangered, in the sense that they are used by the parental and the two previous generations. The remaining languages are all vulnerable."

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

 "The youth justice system is failing Aboriginal families. Aboriginal girls make up  49%  of the youth admitted to custody, and Aboriginal boys are  36%  of those admitted to custody."   Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report

"The youth justice system is failing Aboriginal families. Aboriginal girls make up 49% of the youth admitted to custody, and Aboriginal boys are 36% of those admitted to custody."

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Report